通过一道OG推理题讨论怎样把握句子之间的连贯性
童佳 2017-05-09     09:55 来源: 原创
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摘要:推理题是托福阅读中比较重要的题型之一,其占分量仅次于细节题。同时也是难度较大的题型之一。因为它主要考察我们对句子内部信息之间以及句子之间连贯性的把握,只有把握好这点我们才能通过文章字面意思推断作者言下之意以及语用功能的能力,才能做到有据有度的推理。以下我们借助OG官方托福阅读一道推理题来讨论怎样把握句子之间的连贯性。

Paragraph 5: The Whigs, in contrast, viewed government power positively. They believed that it should be used to protect individual rights and public liberty, and that it had a special role where individual effort was ineffective. By regulating the economy and competition, the government could ensure equal opportunity. Indeed, for Whigs the concept of government promoting the general welfare went beyond the economy. In particular, Whigs in the northern sections of the United States also believed that government power should be used to foster the moral welfare of the country. They were much more likely to favor social-reform legislation and aid to education.

9. Which of the following can be inferred from paragraph 5 about variations in political beliefs within the Whig Party?

○They were focused on issues of public liberty.

○They caused some members to leave the Whig party.

○They were unimportant to most Whigs.

○They reflected regional interests.


通过审题,我们发现该题干的关键词是variations political beliefs the Whig Party其中最关键的是variations”,“变化”。然而,我们回原文定位发现根本找不到与“变化”有关的任何近义词,对此,我们只能另辟新径。

Paragraph 5: The Whigs, in contrast, viewed government power positively. They believed that it should be used to protect individual rights and public liberty, and that it had a special role where individual effort was ineffective. By regulating the economy and competition, the government could ensure equal opportunity. Indeed, for Whigs the concept of government promoting the general welfare went beyond the economy. In particular, Whigs in the northern sections of the United States also believed that government power should be used to foster the moral welfare of the country. They were much more likely to favor social-reform legislation and aid to education.

文章开头这句话The Whigs, in contrast, viewed government power positively. They believed that it should be used to protect individual rights and public liberty, and that it had a special role where individual effort was ineffective. By regulating the economy and competition, the government could ensure equal opportunity.注意关键词viewed, believed. 说明这是共和党的一贯主张,比如应该用政府权力保护个人权力和公众自由,通过规划经济和竞争,政府可以保证机会平等。然后,注意transitional word, “Indeed”,说明为了进一步确定某种事实,Indeed, for Whigs the concept of government promoting the general welfare went beyond the economy.我们发现这句话中内容和前面有所不同,前面主张公平竞争,这里主张社会福利,相信离答案线索已经不远了。

In particular, Whigs in the northern sections of the United States also believed that government power should be used to foster the moral welfare of the country.  They were much more likely to favor social-reform legislation and aid to education.注意衔接词in particular”, 美国北方的辉格党还认为政府力量应该用来推广国家的道德福利。他们更加偏好社会改革法案和补助教育。这里特别强调了美国的特定地域北方,似乎与共和党的一贯主张有所不同,说明共和党的政治信仰变化是与地域相关的。因此答案为D

9. Which of the following can be inferred from paragraph 5 about variations in political beliefs within the Whig Party?

○They were focused on issues of public liberty.

○They caused some members to leave the Whig party.

○They were unimportant to most Whigs.

○They reflected regional interests.

本题的文中与题干相关信息不止一处,难点就在于怎样运用句子之间的连贯性来对信息进行整合,分析和推断。所以这道题错误率很高,即使做对的同学也很难从语境的角度来真正理解这道题。这类题目,我们需要利用衔接词来判断句子之间的逻辑关系,同时注意句中的关键词,发现信息之间的关系(并列,递进,转折,条件或者因果等。因为英语文章的特征就是unity, coherence, transition, 文章上下文都有连贯性。比如这道题仅仅看到这句In particular, Whigs in the northern sections of the United States ,是无法推断出共和党政治信仰是有地区差异的,必须结合前文信息。

总之,欲把握句子之间的连贯性,不是靠做几道题目掌握几个技巧就可以解决的,我们必须把掌握做题技巧和提高语言基本功结合起来,多读多思考,做题时严格把握时间,做完题后最好把与题目相关的文章信息仔细研究,特别要注意文章上下文的联系。最后预祝大家成功。

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