案例分析:一道修辞目的题(思维定势)
童佳 2017-05-23     09:10 来源: 原创
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托福
摘要:源同学经过一段时间的托福课程学习,已经在解题技巧和语言基本功方面有所提高,但中途测试成绩离其目标分数还有一段距离,本文通过一道测试中出现的修辞目的题,根据他对一道修辞目的题的理解来说明他有待提高之处。

案例分析:一道修辞目的题(思维定势)

Paragraph 5: The Psychodynamic Approach. Theorists adopting the psychodynamic approach hold that inner conflicts are crucial for understanding human behavior, including aggression. Sigmund Freud, for example, believed that aggressive impulses are inevitable reactions to the frustrations of daily life. Children normally desire to vent aggressive impulses on other people, including their parents, because even the most attentive parents cannot gratify all of their demands immediately. Yet children, also fearing their parents' punishment and the loss of parental love, come to repress most aggressive impulses. The Freudian perspective, in a sense: sees us as "steam engines." By holding in rather than venting "steam," we set the stage for future explosions. Pent-up aggressive impulses demand outlets. They may be expressed toward parents in indirect ways such as destroying furniture, or they may be expressed toward strangers later in life.

7. Freud describes people as “steam engines” in order to make the point that people

○deliberately build up their aggression to make themselves stronger

○usually release aggression in explosive ways

○must vent their aggression to prevent it from building up

○typically lose their aggression if they do not express it

源同学认为这道题应该选B,理由如下:起初这道题感到无从下手,因为首先看例子当句,看不出什么内容,然后按绕过例子找观点的方法,发现这个例子前面这句话 Yet children, also fearing their parents' punishment and the loss of parental love, come to repress most aggressive impulses. 是个例子,而修辞目的必须用观点证明例子,然后看例子后面这句话 By holding in rather than venting "steam," we set the stage for future explosions. 这句话看上去像观点且和前面的例子有总分关系,不过虽然觉得这句话没有生词,但是就是不太确定意思,他理解成需要以爆发的方式发泄。

根据源同学的陈述,可以发现他善于发现例子和观点的区别,善于把握句子之间的连贯性,也善于发现自己的弱点。然而,由于语言基本功以及中式思维的影响,造成对这句话By holding in rather than venting "steam," we set the stage for future explosions. 理解不透。对此,本人是这样引导的,举了这个例子By drinking more, you will do harm to your heart”,源同学没理解错,即再酗酒就对心脏不利。但是说不出这个句子的句中逻辑更无法paraphrase,对此本人是这样提问的,心脏不好是酗酒的原因还是speaker预测的结果,他才看出心脏不好是酗酒可能导致的结果,酗酒是心脏不好的条件,逻辑关系是条件关系。这样他终于理解了这句话By holding in rather than venting "steam," we set the stage for future explosions. 如果总是压抑不发泄,将来爆发得更厉害,Freud不是建议我们为了发泄而发泄,而是适当得发泄以防止将来进一步爆发,因此答案选C。最终,源同学表示如果这个句子用条件句if表达,他就不会理解错,不过他表示以后做完题要多看文章,多熟悉英语句型,长难句等。

综上所述,托福阅读任何题型都考察我们的语言基本功,考察我们是否能克服中式思维来理解native speaker的语言。虽然英语对我们而言是学习不是习得,但是只要我们加强学习,不局限于一种句型,熟悉英语句型的多样化,多理解native speaker的写作语言以及文风,就不会对阅读中一些看似不常见的句子感到束手无策。

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